MPV Blood Test: Process, High MPV, Low MPV Meaning


The Mean Platelet Volume (MPV) blood test is a diagnostic tool used to measure the average size of platelets in the blood. Platelets are small cell fragments that play a crucial role in blood clotting. By analyzing the MPV, healthcare professionals can gain valuable insights into various medical conditions and assess the overall health of an individual.

The Process of MPV Blood Test

The MPV blood test is a simple and routine procedure that can be performed in a clinical laboratory or a healthcare facility. The process involves the following steps:

  1. Preparation: The patient is typically asked to fast for a few hours before the test to ensure accurate results.
  2. Blood Sample Collection: A healthcare professional will draw a small amount of blood from a vein, usually from the arm, using a needle and syringe.
  3. Laboratory Analysis: The collected blood sample is sent to a laboratory for analysis. The platelets in the sample are measured, and the MPV is calculated.
  4. Results: The MPV value is reported in femtoliters (fL). The normal range for MPV may vary slightly depending on the laboratory, but it generally falls between 7.4 and 10.4 fL.

High MPV: Causes and Implications

A high MPV value indicates that the platelets in the blood are larger than average. This can be caused by various factors and may have different implications:

1. Inflammatory Conditions

Inflammatory conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis or inflammatory bowel disease, can lead to an increase in MPV. Inflammation triggers the release of larger platelets into the bloodstream, resulting in a higher MPV value.

2. Bone Marrow Disorders

Conditions affecting the bone marrow, such as myelodysplastic syndrome or leukemia, can cause an elevation in MPV. These disorders disrupt the normal production of platelets, leading to the release of larger platelets into the bloodstream.

3. Cardiovascular Diseases

Studies have shown a correlation between high MPV and an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, including heart attack and stroke. Elevated MPV levels may indicate a higher likelihood of blood clot formation, which can obstruct blood flow to vital organs.

4. Medications

Certain medications, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or chemotherapeutic agents, can influence MPV levels. It is important to consider medication history when interpreting MPV results.

Low MPV: Causes and Implications

A low MPV value indicates that the platelets in the blood are smaller than average. This can be caused by various factors and may have different implications:

1. Autoimmune Disorders

Autoimmune disorders, such as systemic lupus erythematosus or immune thrombocytopenic purpura, can lead to a decrease in MPV. These conditions can cause the destruction of platelets, resulting in a lower MPV value.

2. Genetic Disorders

Genetic disorders, such as Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome or May-Hegglin anomaly, can affect platelet production and size, leading to a low MPV value.

3. Liver Disease

Liver diseases, such as cirrhosis or hepatitis, can impact platelet production and function, resulting in a decrease in MPV.

4. Nutritional Deficiencies

Nutritional deficiencies, particularly deficiencies in vitamin B12 or folate, can affect platelet production and size, leading to a low MPV value.

Interpreting MPV Results

It is important to note that MPV results should always be interpreted in conjunction with other blood parameters and clinical findings. A single MPV value alone may not provide a definitive diagnosis. Healthcare professionals consider the patient’s medical history, symptoms, and other laboratory results to make an accurate assessment.

For example, a high MPV value in combination with other abnormal blood parameters may indicate a potential bone marrow disorder. On the other hand, a low MPV value with signs of liver disease may suggest liver-related platelet dysfunction.


The MPV blood test is a valuable tool in assessing platelet size and providing insights into various medical conditions. A high MPV value may indicate inflammatory conditions, bone marrow disorders, cardiovascular diseases, or medication effects. Conversely, a low MPV value may be associated with autoimmune disorders, genetic disorders, liver disease, or nutritional deficiencies.

However, it is crucial to interpret MPV results in conjunction with other clinical findings to make an accurate diagnosis. Healthcare professionals play a vital role in analyzing MPV values and providing appropriate medical advice and treatment based on the individual’s specific situation.

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